Further familiarize you with the Executive Summary form and have you strategically communicate in that form

Purpose of Assignment

For this assignment, you will write an executive summary of either Part 3 or Part 5 of the Duarte textbook. You choose whether you want to summarize Part 3 or Part 5.  You will synthesize the main points of what you read. Assume the audience is a class member who needs to understand the purpose and main points of that Part of the text.

The purpose of this assignment is to:

  • Further familiarize you with the Executive Summary form and have you strategically communicate in that form

Using information delivered in class and shared materials (on Canvas):

  • Summarize either Part 3 or Part 5 of the Duarte textbook
  • Audience: Your classmates

Format:

Your Executive Summary should contain the following section headers:

  • Purpose: What was the main point of the Part of the text?
  • Findings: What are the most important things you learned from the text in the Part you chose?
  • Recommendations: What recommendations do you or the authors have?

You may refresh your memory with what an Executive Summary is: http://www.umuc.edu/current-students/learning-resources/writing-center/writing-resources/executive-summaries/index.cfm (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. and http://polaris.umuc.edu/ewc/web/exec_summary.html. You may review some “good” vs. “poor” examples of Executive Summaries here: https://unilearning.uow.edu.au/report/4bi1.html (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.

You are required to use the standard executive summary format, which can be found on in the links shared above.

  • Stay within 2 pages.
  • Single-space your assignment.
  • Your assignment should be skimmable and employ “chunking” of text.
  • Use bulleted or numbered lists as needed

    Section 3 Story

    [Stories] are the currency of human contact.

    —Robert McKee, author of Story: Substance, Structure, Style, and the Principles of Screenwriting

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    6363

    Apply Storytelling Principles

    Stories have the power to win customers, align col-

    leagues, and motivate employees. They’re the most com-

    pelling platform we have for managing imaginations.

    Those who master this art form can gain great infl uence

    and an enduring legacy.

    If you use stories in your presentation, the audience

    can recall what they’ve learned from you and even spread

    the word. Just as the plot of a compelling play, movie, or

    novel makes a writer’s themes more vivid and memora-

    ble, well-crafted stories can give your message real stay-

    ing power, for two key reasons:

    • Stories feature transformation: When people hear a story, they root for the protagonist as she over-

    comes obstacles and emerges changed in some

    important way (perhaps a new outlook helps her

    complete a diffi cult physical journey). It’s doubly

    powerful to incorporate stories that demonstrate

    how others have adopted the same beliefs and

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    Story

    64

    behaviors you’re proposing—that is, show others

    going through a similar transformation that your

    audience will go through. This will help you get

    people to cross over from their everyday world into

    the world of your ideas—and come back to their

    world transformed, with new insights and tools

    from your presentation.

    • Stories have a clear structure: All effective stories adhere to the same basic three-part structure that

    Aristotle pointed out ages ago: They have a begin-

    ning, a middle, and an end. It makes them easy

    to digest and retell—and it’s how audiences have

    been conditioned for centuries to receive informa-

    tion. Make sure your presentation—and any story

    you tell within it—has all three parts, with clear

    transitions between them.

    In this section of the guide, you’ll learn how to use

    storytelling principles to structure your presentation and

    incorporate anecdotes that add emotional appeal.

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    6565

    Create a Solid Structure

    All good presentations—like all good stories—convey

    and resolve some kind of confl ict or imbalance. The sense

    of discord is what makes audiences care enough to get on

    board.

    After gleaning story insights from fi lms and books,

    studying hundreds of speeches, and spending 22 years

    creating customized presentations for companies and

    thought leaders, I’ve found that the most persuasive

    communicators create confl ict by juxtaposing what is

    with what could be. That is, they alternately build tension

    and provide release by toggling back and forth between

    the status quo and a better way—fi nally arriving at the

    “new bliss” people will discover by adopting the proposed

    beliefs and behaviors. That confl ict resolution plays

    out within the basic beginning-middle-end storytelling

    structure we all know and love (fi gure 3-1).

    The tips in this section will help you weave confl ict

    and resolution throughout the beginning, middle, and

    end of your presentation.

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    Story

    66

    What could be

    What could be

    What could be New bliss

    Call to action

    What is What is What is What is

    BEGINNING MIDDLE END

    FIGURE 3-1

    Persuasive story pattern

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    6767

    Craft the Beginning

    Begin by describing life as the audience knows it. People

    should be nodding their heads in recognition because

    you’re articulating what they already understand. This

    creates a bond between you and them and opens them

    up to hear your ideas for change.

    After you set that baseline of what is, introduce your

    ideas of what could be. The gap between the two will

    throw the audience a bit off balance, and that’s a good

    thing—because it creates tension that needs to be re-

    solved (fi gure 3-2).

    The gap

    What is

    What could be

    Contrast the commonplace with the lofty.

    FIGURE 3-2

    Create dramatic tension

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    Story

    68

    If you proposed what could be without fi rst establish-

    ing what is, you’d fail to connect with the audience before

    swooping in with your ideas, and your message would

    lose momentum.

    The gap shouldn’t feel contrived—you wouldn’t say

    “Okay, I’ve described what is. Now let’s move to what

    could be.” Present it naturally so people will feel moved,

    not manipulated. For instance:

    What is: We’re fell short of our Q3 fi nancial goals

    partly because we’re understaffed and everyone’s

    spread too thin.

    What could be: But what if we could solve the worst

    of our problems by bringing in a couple of power-

    house clients? Well, we can.

    Here’s another example:

    What is: Analysts have been placing our products at

    the top of three out of fi ve categories. One competi-

    tor just shook up the industry with the launch of its

    T3xR—heralded as the most innovative product in

    our space. Analysts predict that fi rms like ours will

    have no future unless we license this technology from

    our rival.

    What could be: But we will not concede! In fact, we

    will retain our lead. I’m pleased to tell you that fi ve

    years ago we had the same product idea, but after

    rapid prototyping we discovered a way to leapfrog

    that generation of technology. So today, we’re launch-

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    Craft the Beginning

    69

    ing a product so revolutionary that we’ll gain a ten-

    year lead in our industry.

    Once you establish the gap between what is and

    what could be, use the remainder of the presentation to

    bridge it.

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    7171

    Develop the Middle

    The middle is, in many ways, the most compelling part of

    your presentation, because that’s where most of the “ac-

    tion” takes place.

    People in your audience now realize their world is

    off-kilter—you’ve brought that to their attention and at

    least hinted at a solution at the beginning of your presen-

    tation. Now continue to emphasize the contrast between

    what is and what could be, moving back and forth be-

    tween them, and the audience will start to fi nd the for-

    mer unappealing and the latter alluring.

    Let’s go back to that Q3 fi nancial update example

    from “Craft the Beginning.” Revenues are down, but you

    want to motivate employees to make up for it. Table 3-1

    shows one way you could approach the middle of your

    presentation.

    Earlier, you brainstormed around pairs of contrasting

    themes (see “Amplify Your Message Through Contrast”

    in the Message section). Try using one of those pairs—for

    instance, sacrifi ce versus reward—to drum up material to

    fl esh out this structure.

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    Story

    72

    TABLE 3-1

    Creating “action” in the middle of your story

    What is What could be We missed our Q3 forecast by 15%. Q4 numbers must be strong for us

    to pay out bonuses.

    We have six new clients on our roster. Two of them have the potential to bring in more revenue than our best clients do now.

    The new clients will require extensive retooling in manufacturing.

    We’ll be bringing in experts from Germany to help.

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    7373

    Make the Ending Powerful

    Your ending should leave people with a heightened sense

    of what could be—and willingness to believe or do some-

    thing new. Here’s where you describe how blissful their

    world will be when they adopt your ideas.

    Let’s return to our Q3 example from “Craft the Begin-

    ning” and “Develop the Middle” in this section. You might

    wrap up your presentation along the lines of fi gure 3-3.

    New bliss

    It will take extra work from all departments to make Q4 numbers, but we can deliver products to our important new clients on time and with no errors.

    I know everyone’s running on fumes—but hang in there. This is our chance to pull together like a championship team, and things will get easier if we make this work. The reward if we meet our Q4 targets? Bonuses, plus days off at the end of the year.

    Call to action

    FIGURE 3-3

    Making the ending powerful

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    Story

    74

    Many presentations simply end with a list of action

    items, but that isn’t exactly inspiring. You want the last

    thing you say to move your audience to tackle those

    items. You want people to feel ready to right the wrong,

    to conquer the problem.

    By skillfully defi ning future rewards, you compel peo-

    ple to get on board with your ideas. Show them that tak-

    ing action will be worth their effort. Highlight:

    • Benefi ts to them: What needs of theirs will your ideas meet? What freedoms will the audience

    gain? How will your ideas give the audience

    greater infl uence or status?

    • Benefi ts to their “sphere”: How will your ideas help the audience’s peers, direct reports, custom-

    ers, students, or friends?

    • Benefi ts to the world: How will your ideas help the masses? How will they improve public health, for

    instance, or help the environment?

    In the example above, we’ve called out a key benefi t

    to the organization (making up for Q3 revenue short-

    fall), plus three benefi ts to employees (bonuses, time off,

    and—probably most important—the promise of a saner

    workload).

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    7575

    Add Emotional Texture

    Now step back and review all your content so far. Do you

    have the right mix of analysis and emotion? (See “Bal-

    ance Analytical and Emotional Appeal” in the Message

    section.) If you need more emotional impact, you can add

    it with storytelling.

    A message matters to people when it hits them in the

    gut. Visceral response, not pure analysis, is what will

    push your audience away from the status quo and toward

    your perspective. Stories elicit that kind of response.

    When we hear stories, our eyes dilate, our hearts race, we

    feel chills. We laugh, clap, lean forward or back. These re-

    actions are mostly involuntary, because they’re grounded

    in emotion.

    While you’re describing what is, tell a story that makes

    people shudder, or guffaw at the ridiculousness of their

    situation, or feel disappointment. While you’re describ-

    ing what could be, tell a story that strikes a little awe or

    fear into their hearts—something that inspires them to

    change.

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    Story

    76

    Table 3-2 shows a template (with an example plugged

    in) that can help you transform supporting information

    into a story with emotional impact.

    You may be thinking that people don’t go to work to

    feel; they go to get stuff done. But by making them feel,

    you move them to action—and help them get stuff done.

    It’s not about issuing a gushing, weepy plea. It’s about

    TABLE 3-2

    Making an emotional impact with data

    Point you want to make Every cross-divisional function could benefi t from a steering committee.

    Story about organizational change

    Beginning When, who, where

    A few years ago, the sales team tackled a cross- divisional problem with the help of a steering committee.

    Middle Context At the time, all sales groups were independent.

    Confl ict This means we were confusing customers with many diff erent rules, processes, and formats.

    Proposed resolution

    So we decided to create a sales steering committee.

    Complication You can imagine how hard it was to reach agreement on anything.

    End Actual resolution

    But we agreed to meet every two weeks to fi nd common ground. Over the next year, we standardized all our processes and learned a lot from each other. The customers became much happier with our service.

    Source: Glenn Hughes, SMART as Hell.

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    Add Emotional Texture

    77

    adding emotional texture to the logical case you’ve built

    with data, case studies, and other supporting evidence.

    Personal stories told with conviction are the most ef-

    fective ones in your arsenal. You can repeat stories you’ve

    heard, but audiences feel more affection for presenters

    who reveal their own challenges and vulnerability.

    Use relevant stories that are appropriately dramatic,

    or you may come across as manipulative or out of touch

    with reality. When giving an update at a small staff meet-

    ing on a project you’re leading, you wouldn’t tell a melo-

    dramatic story about the “just-in-time delivery” of mul-

    tiple vendors you managed at your daughter’s wedding.

    It would waste everyone’s time.

    But one U.S. government offi cial did effectively tell a

    story about his daughter’s wedding—to get new remote-

    communication technology adopted in his organization.

    Many of his relatives couldn’t travel to the wedding, so he

    used a commercial version of the technology to push the

    wedding pictures quickly to the remote family members,

    helping all feel more included in the event. He argued

    that adopting the enterprise version of this technology

    would similarly include distant employees in the devel-

    opment of important agency initiatives. The senior ex-

    ecutives not only understood this with their minds but

    felt it in their hearts. They could relate this story about

    a father doing his best to serve his family to their agency

    doing its best to serve the citizenry.

    Take out a notepad and start cataloging personal

    stories and the emotions they summon. This exercise

    takes time, but it will yield material you can draw on

    again and again. Do your fi rst pass when you have an

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    Story

    78

    Inventory of Personal Stories

    □ Important times in your life: Childhood, adoles- cence, young adulthood, later years

    □ Relatives: Parents, grandparents, siblings, chil- dren, in-laws

    □ Authority fi gures: Teachers, bosses, coaches, men- tors, leaders, political fi gures, other infl uencers

    □ Peers: Colleagues, social networks, club members, friends, neighbors, teammates

    □ Subordinates: Employees, mentees, trainees, interns, volunteers, students

    □ Enemies: Competitors, bullies, people with chal- lenging personalities, people you’ve been hurt by,

    people you’ve hurt

    □ Important places: Offi ces, homes, schools, places of worship, local hangouts, camps, vacation spots,

    foreign lands

    □ Things you cherish: Gifts, photos, certifi cates/ awards, keepsakes

    □ Things that have injured you: Sharp objects, ani- mal bites, spoiled food, allergens

    uninterrupted hour or so to refl ect. You can use the

    checklist that follows to trigger your memory. As you

    recall past events, jot down how you felt when you ex-

    perienced them.

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    Add Emotional Texture

    79

    Spending time with each item on this list, you’ll un-

    earth many stories you’ve forgotten. Even after you’ve se-

    lected stories for whatever presentation you’re currently

    working on, save your notes and continue adding to them

    here and there, as you fi nd time. They’ll come in handy

    when you’re creating future presentations.

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    8181

    Use Metaphors as Your Glue

    Metaphors are a powerful literary device. In Dr. Martin

    Luther King Jr.’s “I Have a Dream” speech, about 20%

    of what he said was metaphorical. For example, he lik-

    ened his lack of freedom to a bad check that “America has

    given the Negro people . . . a check which has come back

    marked ‘insuffi cient funds.’” King introduced this meta-

    phor three minutes into his 16-minute talk, and it was

    the fi rst time the audience roared and clapped.

    Presenters tend to overrely on tired visual metaphors

    instead of using powerful words to stir hearts. King’s

    speech would not have been nearly as beautiful if he’d

    used slides with pictures of bad checks and piles of gold

    symbolizing “freedom and the security of justice.”

    For each point you make in your presentation, try

    to come up with a metaphor to connect people’s minds

    to the concept. You might even weave it like a thread

    throughout the presentation.

    When developing metaphors, reject overused themes

    like racecars and sporting events—and avoid stock pho-

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    Story

    82

    tos along those lines. If you want to tell a story of tri-

    umph, dig into one of your own stories for the right meta-

    phor: Describe, for instance, how it felt to struggle to the

    top of Yosemite’s Half Dome, run your fi rst marathon, or

    win the citywide Boy Scout trophy. Identify metaphors

    that will be meaningful to the audience.

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    8383

    Create Something They’ll Always Remember

    Place Something They’ll Always Remember—a climac-

    tic S.T.A.R. moment—in your presentation to drive your

    big idea home. That moment is what the audience will

    chat (or tweet) about after your talk. It can also help your

    message go viral through social media and news cover-

    age. Use it to make people uncomfortable with what is or

    to draw them toward what could be. Here are four ways

    to create a S.T.A.R. moment that captivates your audi-

    ence and generates buzz.

    Shocking statistics

    If statistics are shocking, don’t glide over them—amplify

    them. For example, in his 2010 Consumer Electronics

    Show presentation, Intel CEO Paul Otellini used star-

    tling numbers to convey the speed and impact of the

    company’s newest technology. “Today we have the indus-

    try’s fi rst-shipping 32-nanometer process technology. A

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    Story

    84

    32-nanometer microprocessor is 5,000 times faster; its

    transistors are 100,000 times cheaper than the 4004

    processor that we began with. With all respect to our

    friends in the auto industry, if their products had pro-

    duced the same kind of innovation, cars today would go

    470,000 miles per hour. They’d get 100,000 miles per

    gallon, and they’d cost three cents.”

    Evocative visuals

    Audiences connect with emotionally potent visuals.

    When asking donors to help raise $1.7 million, Conserva-

    tion International contrasted dreamy, glistening, surreal

    under-ocean images (captioned with phrases like “90%

    of our oxygen” describing how dependent we are on the

    ocean) with photos of grimy rubbish that washes up on

    the beach (where “14 billion pounds of trash” roll in on

    the waves). That approach tapped the power of evoca-

    tive visuals and shocking stats—and people responded by

    getting out their wallets.

    Memorable dramatization

    Bring your message to life by dramatizing it. As Bill Gates

    spoke about the importance of malaria eradication at a

    TED conference in 2009, he released a jar of mosquitoes

    into the auditorium and said, “There is no reason only

    poor people should be infected.” It got the audience’s

    attention—and effectively made the point that we don’t

    spend nearly enough money on fi ghting the disease. The

    mosquitoes were malaria-free, but he let people squirm a

    minute or two before he let them know that.

    Consider another example. When Mirran Raphaely,

    CEO of Dr. Hauschka Skin Care, presented to the cos-

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    Create Something They’ll Always Remember

    85

    metics industry, she wanted to draw a sharp contrast

    between industrial agriculture and biodynamic farming

    practices. She showed two photos side by side—a con-

    tainer of chemicals and an herb called horsetail—and

    compared the toxicity of the two substances. In indus-

    trial agriculture, farmers rely on glyphosate, a synthetic

    chemical linked to cancer in animals and humans. In bio-

    dynamic agriculture, farmers treat crops with an extract

    made from horsetail. Holding up two glasses—one fi lled

    with the chemical weed killer, the other with the horse-

    tail extract—she asked the audience, “Which one of these

    would you want on the crops you consume?” After the

    audience fi nished laughing, she took a sip of the biody-

    namic solution.

    Emotive anecdote

    Sometimes S.T.A.R. moments are gripping personal sto-

    ries (see “Add Emotional Texture” earlier in this section).

    Here’s one such story, told by Symantec.cloud group

    president Row an Trollope in May 2012, to encourage his

    organization to innovate:

    I went mountain climbing at Mount Laurel, in the

    eastern Sierras, with two of my friends. I’m not very ex-

    perienced, but both of them were even less experienced.

    We’d been climbing for about 19 hours. We were up at

    11,000 feet, and it was getting dark. Fast.

    We needed to get down the side of this mountain . . .

    and we needed to do it fast. Descending fi rst, I got to a

    ledge and started to get our line ready.

    Climbers carry two emergency pitons with them for

    just this purpose. I’d never used them before, but I knew

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    Story

    86

    how they worked. I took out my hammer and started

    hammering one into the rock. The books tell you that

    you’ll hear the tone of the hammer strike change when

    it’s “in.” I heard a loud ping with each strike of the

    hammer and decided it was in “good enough.”

    The books also tell you, though, to always use two, so

    I used two. As I hammered in the second one, I heard a

    sharp, high-pitched ping at the end, so I tied the knots

    and got our line ready. By this time, my buddies had

    reached the ledge, and I started to hook us in.

    Something was bugging me. I looked at the knot

    between the two pitons and it looked like this [prop:

    climbing rope with two pitons]. The problem with a

    knot like that is that if one piton fails, you’ll fall. You

    need to tie it instead like this [prop: retie knot].

    My buddies were all clipped in and wanted to get

    going. It was getting darker. The way I tied the knot

    seemed good enough, but something in the back of my

    head told me to stop. So I did.

    We all unclipped, and I retied the knot, and then we

    clipped in again and started the climb down.

    The moment I put weight on my line, the fi rst piton

    popped out and hit me smack in the middle of the hel-

    met. Had I not unclipped and retied the knot, I would

    have died on that ledge. My life rushed through my

    mind. And I suddenly and irrevocably got the danger

    of “good enough.”

    When I pounded in that fi rst piton, I decided it was

    good enough.

    When I tied the knot that fi rst time, I decided that it

    wasn’t, so I did it again.

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    Create Something They’ll Always Remember

    87

    I still have that piton that popped out. I brought it

    with me today because I thought you might like to see

    it [prop: piton]. The other one? The one that saved my

    life? It’s still in a crack on the Laurel Cliffs. Still doing

    its job.

    I came back to work, and everything had new mean-

    ing for me. Retying my knots became a sort of meta-

    phor. I realized that in every job I did, every project I

    touched, I was making piton decisions every time. I

    was deciding, with every one of those moves, whether

    good enough was good enough for me.

    I picked that story for today because I think we’re

    facing a similar climb as a company. And we’re mak-

    ing piton decisions every day. For my buddies and me,

    there was nothing but sky beneath us. When you and I

    look down, we see the PC business changing dramati-

    cally. We can see physical things being driven into the

    cloud, and we can agree that the Internet is not yet a

    secure place.

    Unfortunately, it will take more than one piton to

    address these dangers. But I think it starts by reawak-

    ening in our company some of the qualities that made

    us great in the fi rst place. And to do that, I think we

    need to change how we approach our work.

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    • Cover
    • What You’ll Learn
    • Contents
    • Introduction
    • Section 1: Audience
    • Understand the Audience’s Power
    • Segment the Audience
    • Present Clearly and Concisely to Senior Executives
    • Get to Know Your Audience
    • Define How You’ll Change the Audience
    • Find Common Ground
    • Section 2: Message
    • Define Your Big Idea
    • Generate Content to Support the Big Idea
    • Anticipate Resistance
    • Amplify Your Message Through Contrast
    • Build an Effective Call to Action
    • Choose Your Best Ideas
    • Organize Your Thoughts
    • Balance Analytical and Emotional Appeal
    • Lose the Jargon
    • Craft Sound Bites
    • Section 3: Story
    • Apply Storytelling Principles
    • Create a Solid Structure
    • Craft the Beginning
    • Develop the Middle
    • Make the Ending Powerful
    • Add Emotional Texture
    • Use Metaphors as Your Glue
    • Create Something They’ll Always Remember
    • Section 4: Media
    • Choose the Right Vehicle for Your Message
    • Make the Most of Slide Software
    • Determine the Right Length for Your Presentation
    • Persuade Beyond the Stage
    • Share the Stage
    • Section 5: Slides
    • Think Like a Designer
    • Create Slides People Can “Get” in Three Seconds
    • Choose the Right Type of Slide
    • Storyboard One Idea per Slide
    • Avoid Visual Cliches
    • Arrange Slide Elements with Care
    • Clarify the Data
    • Turn Words into Diagrams
    • Use the Right Number of Slides
    • Know When to Animate
    • Section 6: Delivery
    • Rehearse Your Material Well
    • Know the Venue and Schedule
    • Anticipate Technology Glitches
    • Manage Your Stage Fright
    • Set the Right Tone for Your Talk
    • Be Yourself
    • Communicate with Your Body
    • Communicate with Your Voice
    • Make Your Stories Come to Life
    • Work Effectively with Your Interpreter
    • Get the Most out of Your Q&A
    • Build Trust with a Remote Audience
    • Keep Remote Listeners Interested
    • Keep Your Remote Presentation Running Smoothly
    • Section 7: Impact
    • Build Relationships Through Social Media
    • Spread Your Ideas with Social Media
    • Gauge Whether You’ve Connected with People
    • Follow Up After Your Talk
    • Index
    • About the Author
    • Notes

    .

Assume that hiring a general manager of operations was a good idea. What leadership style would be most effective in this position? Why?

Josh Breitt, Rachel Starr, and Justin Diamond started an advertising agency to serve the needs of small businesses selling in and around their metropolitan area. Breitt contributed clever ideas and a talent for writing scripts and wooing clients. Starr brought a wealth of media contacts, and Diamond handled the artwork. Their quirky ad campaigns soon attracted a stream of projects from car dealers, community  banks, and a carpet store. Since the agency’s first year, these clients have kept the bills paid while the three-win contracts from other companies. Breitt, Starr & Diamond (BS&D) prospered by helping clients keep up with the times, and the agency grew to meet the demand, adding a bookkeeper, a graphic artist, a web designer, two salespeople, a social media expert, and a retired human resource manager, who works 10 hours per week.

As the firm grew, the three partners felt they were constantly being pulled away from their areas of expertise to answer questions and solve problems about how to coordinate work, define jobs, and set priorities. They realized that none of them had any management training—and none of them had ever wanted to be a manager. They decided to hire a manager for a position they would call general manager of operations. That person would be responsible for supervising the employees, making sure expenses didn’t go over budget, and planning the resources (including people) needed for further growth.

The partners interviewed several candidates and hired Brad Howser, a longtime administrator for a four-physician medical office. Howser spent the first few weeks quietly studying BS&D’s financial data and observing employees at work. Then he became more outspoken and assertive. Although the partners had never cared to monitor what time employees came or left, Howser began requiring all employees to start by 9:00 each morning. The graphic artist and one of the salespeople complained that flexible hours were necessary for their childcare arrangements, but Howser was unyielding. He also questioned whether the employees had been shopping carefully for supplies, indicating that from then on, he would be making all purchases, and only after the employees submitted their requests on a form of his design. Finally, to promote what he called team spirit, Howser began scheduling weekly Monday-morning staff meetings. He would offer motivational thoughts based

on his experience at his previous job and invite the employees to share any work-related concerns or ideas they might have. Generally, the employees chose not to share.

Initially, the partners were impressed with Howser’s vigorous approach to his job. They felt more productive than they had been in years because Howser was handling employee concerns himself. Then the top salesperson quit, followed by the social media expert. The bookkeeper asked if she might meet with the partners. “Is it something you should be discussing with Brad?” Rachel asked her. The bookkeeper replied that, no, it was about Brad. All the employees were unhappy with him, and more were likely to leave.

1.Assume that hiring a general manager of operations was a good idea. What leadership style would be most effective in this position? Why?

2. What leader behaviors did Brad Howser exhibit? How well did they fit the needs of the ad agency?

3. Consider your own leadership style. What are some of your tendencies, and how might you change your perspective?

 

  • Approximately 500-750 words total.
  • APA format for your citations when writing up the case.

    Running head: BREITT, STARR & DIAMOND CASE STUDY 1

    Breitt, Starr & Diamond Case Study

    Tony Archuleta-Perkins

    New England College

    BREITT, STARR & DIAMOND CASE STUDY

    2

    Abstract

    Transformational leadership approach would be the best solution for Breitt, Starr & Diamond

    LLC. The three founders never wanted to be leaders, they wanted to focus on their creative

    expertise. The four behaviors that define transformational leadership exemplify the culture need

    at Breitt, Starr & Diamond LLC. The newly hired general manager, Brad Howser followed an

    authoritarian leadership model. This approach was upsetting with the existing team, as they were

    not included in paradigm shift of leadership and strategy of the company. Howser’s approach to

    leadership was also transactional in nature. This approach was very efficient financially and was

    the first to launch internal controls. In the beginning of my own career, I would consider myself

    a Country Club Manager, as I wanted to please everyone. Over the years, I have to learned to

    transform into Team Management approach.

    Keywords: leadership, culture shifts, paradigms, behaviors

    BREITT, STARR & DIAMOND CASE STUDY

    3

    Transformational leadership would be the best approach for the case study of Breitt, Starr

    & Diamond LLC. The company was formed with the three of them, each bringing their

    specialized creative expertise. The agency had grown so much that it required hiring of seven

    new employees to help sustain the growth of the business. The foundation of the business is that

    of small, creative, open, trustworthy work environment.

    “Transformational leaders transform the personal values of followers to support the

    vision and goals of the organization by fostering an environment where relationships can be

    formed and by establishing a climate of trust in which visions can be shared” (Stone, Russell, &

    Patterson, 2004). In 1991 it was established by Avolio four primary behaviors that constitute

    transformational leadership (Avolio, Waldman, & Yammarino, 1991):

    1. Idealized influence.

    2. Inspirational motivation.

    3. Intellectual stimulation.

    4. Individualized consideration.

    “Leaders are being driven into unfamiliar territory where change remains the only

    constant” (Sarros & Santora, 2001). This was the exact predicament that Josh, Rachel & Justin

    found themselves in before deciding to hire Brad Howser, their new General Manager.

    Regarding the leadership grid, Howser followed the Authority Compliance (Bateman,

    Snell, & Konopaske, 2019). This methodology proved to be good for the firm regarding

    efficiencies, operations and potentially cost savings. Unfortunately, the negative impact upon

    the firm was the lack of regard, or empathy towards the employees. Two confirmed

    resignations and one more on the way is a sure tale sign of potentially not the best leadership

    move.

    BREITT, STARR & DIAMOND CASE STUDY

    4

    Transactional leadership would be another methodology that Howser followed. This was

    show by his actions of keeping to strict schedules, controlling the manner in which supplies

    were ordered by his custom designed form. All signs of good internal controls, but at what

    costs?

    H. James & Voehl describe the required essentials needed to move forward with a

    cultural change management (CCM) process:

    • Change should be embraced as the all employees’ culture and not only the top

    management’s vision or desire.

    • Change should be considered in terms of corporate culture and business needs

    simultaneously.

    • The core part of any CCM effort is to have a management transformation strategy.

    • People will not change unless and until they are psychologically ready to

    withdraw from their current daily habits (H. James & Voehl, 2015).

    In the case of Breitt, Starr & Diamond, these crucial steps were not taken. Howser was being a

    good leader, but perhaps was acting in a silo and was not getting the leadership team involved,

    nor was he getting the team involved. Thus, created a hostile environment between the founders

    and their employees.

    “In becoming a leader, it is essential that you take on the role in ways and practices that

    you can be comfortable with” (Canning, 2016). These words sit very personally with the author

    of this case study. In my career, I have been able to mold my leadership style to one that is more

    effective. In the beginning, I would certainly classify myself as the Country Club Leader

    (Bateman, Snell, & Konopaske, 2019). As of now, I have been able to transform my style to that

    of Team Management (Bateman, Snell, & Konopaske, 2019). Per Rego, Pereira Lopes &

    BREITT, STARR & DIAMOND CASE STUDY

    5

    Volkmann Simpson the Leadership Grid they established would mimic of Bateman et al. The

    categories I would certainly classify as under Rego et al would be Authentic and Machiavelically

    Authentic, respectively (Rego, Pereira Lopes, & Volkmann Simpson, 2017). Essentially, my

    style is one that I will get the global strategic picture accomplished, but able to guide the team to

    get the details delegated appropriately.

    BREITT, STARR & DIAMOND CASE STUDY

    6

    References

    Avolio, B., Waldman, D., & Yammarino, F. (1991). Leading int he 1990s: the four Is of

    transformational leadership. Journal of European Industrial Training, Vol. 15 No. 4, pp.

    9-16.

    Bateman, T. S., Snell, S. A., & Konopaske, R. (2019). Management: Leading & Collaborating in

    a Competitive World. New York: McGraw Hill Education.

    Canning, B. (2016). Define Your Leadership Style. MotorAge.Com, pp. 8-9.

    H. James, H., & Voehl, F. (2015). Cultural Change Management. International Journal of

    Innovation Science, Vol. 7 No. 1, pp. 55-74.

    Rego, P., Pereira Lopes, M., & Volkmann Simpson, A. (2017). The Authentic-Machiavellian

    Leadership Grid: A Typology of Leadership Styles. Journal of Leadership Styles, Vol. 11

    No. 2, pp. 48-51.

    Sarros, J. C., & Santora, J. C. (2001, July). The transformational-transactional leadership model

    in practice. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, Vol. 22 No. 8, pp. 383-

    393.

    Stone, A., Russell, R. F., & Patterson, K. (2004). Transformational versus servant leadership: a

    difference in leader focus. Emerald Insight, Vol. 25 No. 4, pp. 349-361.

What opportunities for lateral leadership exist in your current professional role?

Lateral Leadership

What opportunities for lateral leadership exist in your current professional role?

After watching this week’s videos and reviewing the course materials, consider how you would improve your approach to getting support for your initiatives in situations where you don’t have management authority.

Post your initial response by Wednesday, midnight of your time zone, and reply to at least 2 of your classmates’ initial posts by Sunday, midnight of your time zone.​

respond 1

Yalanda Edwards RE: Week 7 DiscussionCOLLAPSE

The opportunity for lateral leadership in my current professional role occurs when I can advise college students on the importance of the journey they have taken on. I recently change work careers from being an office manager in manufacturing to administrative assistant to Dean of Education at a college. This transition is a lot different from what I have been use to yet a lot more rewarding. The lateral leadership now is talking with young people making sure they understand this education journey they are taking will be challenging, but the reward will come.

There is a lot of support education; the problem exists when trying to bring all or most of the resources together — improving on getting support for initiatives in situations where management can also help with supplies. The problems come when attempting to get everyone on the same page. We tend to have the same goals in mind; just reaching the target the same way is the problem.

Ideas to getting support:

  1. Give Subtitles for research
  2. Creating teams
  3. Bring teams together for brainstorming
  4. Define an ultimate reachable goal

Article I found interesting:

Five winning strategies for Lateral leadership

Published on April 24, 2014

Chihttps://www.linkedin.com/pulse/20140424064618-21659755-5-winning-strategies-for-lateral-leadershipef Control Officer, Digital HSB

References:

Welch, J.: Chapter 18: Hard Spots

Huffman, E.: 7 Tips for Managing Sideways

Prentiss, B.: Lateral Leadership: Tips for Leading Colleagues Even If They Don’t Report to You

respond 2

 

We are talking this week about working relationships and ways to make our relationships with coworkers more productive and efficient.  We have to make sure, as Jack says, that you have the most capable and highly developed people on your team. This encompasses more than technical knowledge and capability. It encompasses the ability of the team members to interact well with each other and contribute to the work of the organization. It also includes the concept of lateral leadership which is the ability to influence those with whom you work without occupying a position of formal authority.

The article below offers a unique perspective on this mandate.

If Your Innovation Effort Isn’t Working, Look at Who’s on the Team.pdf

JWI 510: Leadership in the 21st Century Lecture Notes

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Week 7: Leading through Relationships As Jack counsels, leading is not about power and control; leading is about achieving results through others. These others include, not only your employees, but also your boss and colleagues. Your colleagues, especially in large multinational organizations, can be widespread and may be located in different business units and different countries. Further, in businesses of any size, you may have to exert influence over employees of other companies that are part of your supply chain, or you may have to deal with virtual teams. As such, our focus this week is on achieving results through leading upwards and laterally, and on getting work done in situations where you don’t have formal authority.

Lateral Leadership and Persuasion

Lateral leadership focuses on the particular capabilities all leaders must hone to ensure their effectiveness in today’s organizations. Johnson (2003) states that the key capabilities include:

• Networking Determine whose support you will need to achieve your current and potential initiatives, and build those relationships.

• Persuasion and Negotiation When bargaining, focus on mutual benefit. This will increase your influence and build solid professional relationships.

• Consultation Talk to people whose buy-in you need for an initiative about the best processes to achieve results, and what will create support for the initiative and its implementation.

• Coalition Building Alliances are more powerful than attempting to influence by oneself, so gather together the people you need to support the initiative.

Honing these skills requires a leader to focus on the organization of the system, rather than focusing on one functional silo. Clearly, all lateral leadership capabilities revolve around a conscious focus on building relationships. Developing solid and enduring relationships is the surest way of building the trust required to effectively influence.

JWI 510: Leadership in the 21st Century Lecture Notes

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The Art of Persuasion

The key capabilities of lateral leadership are closely tied to effective persuasion. Persuasion is a necessary approach to achieving results in today’s flat, multi-generational, team-oriented organization. What you may think of as persuasion – a one-time, hard sell, well-reasoned, firm approach – is a recipe for failure. There are four factors necessary for effective persuasion (Conger, 1998):

1. Credibility

To persuade someone, they need to trust you. Be aware that you might think you are more credible than you really are; this factor is about expertise. If you do not have a history of being knowledgeable and making sound decisions, you need to learn more about your position, hire someone who has the expertise needed, or support your position with respected outside sources. Reflect on your relational history and, if there are gaps in your relationships, you may need to meet personally with key individuals or gather groups of allies who have relationships with those you want to persuade.

2. Shared Benefits It is important to understand your audience and how they will perceive the issue presented to them. This depth of understanding requires asking questions and carefully listening to feedback from those impacted by the issue. Persuasion may transform during this process; some adjustment is a positive step toward a successful outcome. Once the audience is understood, the issue must be presented so that the advantages for your audience are clear.

3. Memorable Evidence To effectively persuade, present the audience with a story that will make a meaningful impact and be memorable. One of the most effective approaches is to vividly describe a comparable situation.

4. Show Emotion Just as Jack advocates for passion as an essential quality of great leaders and good employees, it is also important for effective persuasion. It is essential to show an emotional connection to the issue presented – the audience must feel it. It is equally important to understand the mood and the emotional state of the audience, so you can adjust tone accordingly.

Persuasion is difficult. It takes time, but it is a powerful force that can move an organization forward. Next week, we will explore the topic of getting results. Try and weave what you have learned about persuasion into what you will learn about leading an organization that executes to win.

JWI 510: Leadership in the 21st Century Lecture Notes

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The Five Laws of Managing Up If you are working, you are either self-employed and the owner of your business, or you have a boss. Just as your lateral relationships are a central focus, so, too, is your relationship with your boss. The most effective leaders know how to make the most of this. They know how to manage up. In an age when you spend the majority of your waking hours at work, bosses can have an enormous impact on your daily life and self-esteem. They hold power over your compensation and career. They can make or break your ability to do your job well in terms of resources and coaching. In sum, a good relationship with your boss can make work, not just deeply rewarding, but downright fun. A bad one can cause misery. Either way, remember that upward relationships require special tending. With that in mind, we now turn to five laws for effectively influencing your boss, developed by management expert Michael Feiner (2004).

1. Make Your Own Bed

You are 100% responsible for the quality of your relationship with your boss. Sure, some bosses care deeply about building a connection with each direct report, but most are too busy managing their own jobs and their own bosses to care nearly as much as you do about forging a healthy and productive personal bond. Do not expect your boss to jump in and “own” your relationship. You must jump first. And why not? You most likely have more to gain than lose.

2. Get Behind the Mask You can only influence your boss when you understand your boss. What motivates them? What are their priorities, objectives, goals, and ambitions? What are their points of contention? And, most importantly, what are their expectations of you? So, how do you find out about your boss? Often, it can be as simple as asking them directly, but careful and dedicated observation also helps. To whom does your boss talk most often? To whom do they listen? What do they read? What makes them laugh? What drives them nuts? Each one of these details will open your eyes to your boss’s values and concerns, showing you the path to a relationship that surpasses the superficial.

3. Commit to the Success of Your Boss

This law is easy if you really like your boss. In such cases, of course, you’ll do everything you can to assure their admiration and assent. But, even if you do not like your boss, you have to discipline yourself to respect the position that they hold. That’s professionalism. That’s doing the right thing. Keep your boss continually informed. Meet your obligations. Make sure you are dependable. Nothing is more likely to enhance your relationship with your boss than seeing that their goals were achieved because of you.

JWI 510: Leadership in the 21st Century Lecture Notes

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4. Speak Truth to Power … Carefully

The most successful supervisors understand that people at high organizational levels are sometimes cut off from what people really think about them and the company. The best leaders do want to hear the bad news along with the good. They know that leaders cannot deliver their best performance if the people who work for them will not relay the information they need to make good decisions. You can confront your boss with unpleasant news by, first, ensuring the information you want to convey is accurate. Next, make it clear that you are not seeking a gripe session or a confrontation, but rather trying to raise important questions or share information you think your boss should have. Lastly, know when and how to begin the conversation.

5. Act Like a Grownup

There will be times in your career when you have done all you can and tried everything you can think of to build a solid relationship with your boss to no avail. It may seem to you that the boss does not care about anything but their own success, that you are regarded as merely a factor of production or some kind of inanimate object. You may conclude that your boss has no interest in your personal growth and professional development. However accurate your perceptions, you cannot feel sorry for yourself. You cannot play the victim. Confront your problem with a healthy and productive mindset, and find an equally healthy and productive solution. And do not quit abruptly, leaving your team in the lurch. If you are tempted to quit, remember that you can often learn more from a bad boss than from a good one.

We do not want to leave you with the impression that most bosses bring you down. Indeed, many bosses are good or even great, and, surely, most strive to be. But the quality of your boss’s management is something you have little control over. You can only control the quality of your relationship. Own that responsibility, and you’re managing up.

Your Leadership Journey

• If you are new to leadership, learn about why lateral leadership works

• If you are a team leader, consider how to solidify your boss-subordinate relationship

• If you are a senior/veteran leader, think about how to ask the right questions of your managers to help them build the skills they need to appropriately manage up to you

This week you will begin to develop an annotated bibliography (you can read more about annotated bibliographies at Purdue OWL.

notated Bibliography Instructions

REMINDER: You are writing from the perspective of a marketing associate for the organization you have chosen. This assignment builds on the Reference List assignment from Week 2, but you are free to chose other sources as well.

This week you will begin to develop an annotated bibliography (you can read more about annotated bibliographies at Purdue OWL.

The purpose of the bibliography is to list, summarize, and assess the content of business quality sources related to your topic. A good place to start is the MGT 210 Course Research Guide located here: http://stevenson.libguides.com/c.php?g=41476&p=264296

While you are waiting for the vendor to respond to your request for information, you have decided to be proactive and prepare more information for your director.

You believe your director would be interested in learning more about industry best practices, laws/regulations, and ethical issues related to social media for business use.

Step 1: Research each of the following topics as they relate to social media for business

  • Industry best practices
  • Laws/regulations
  • Ethical issues

Step 2: Prepare an annotated bibliography.

Your bibliography must include at least three sources for each of the topics above. That means three (3) business quality references for industry best practices, three (3) business quality references for laws/regulations, and three (3) business quality references for ethical issues

The purpose of the bibliography is to list, summarize, and assess the content of business quality sources related to your topic.

You can read more about annotated bibliographies at Purdue OWL.

A good place to start your research is the MGT210 Course Research Guide located here – http://stevenson.libguides.com/c.php?g=41476&p=264296

Complete your annotated bibliography for these three areas of social media in a Word document and submit using the link below.

You are the project manager on Project VIM, which is building a new printer, scanner, copier, and fax machine from various component parts

  • For the calculation section, complete the attached Excel template or a similar one. Post your answers in the Excel file.
  • For the written essay section, submit a paper that is 2 pages long
  • APA FORMAT

Option #1: Make or Buy

The PMP Certification Exam may include Make or Buy Analysis questions. Although it’s not the only reason for learning this material, this assignment helps prepare you for that type of question on the exam. The assignment is relevant whether you plan to take the PMP exam, have already passed the exam, or have no plans to take the exam.

The calculation part of the question requires only addition and multiplication. Start by reading the scenario and then answer the questions below.

Scenario: 

You are the project manager on Project VIM, which is building a new printer, scanner, copier, and fax machine from various component parts. One of the component parts for the VIM product is currently available from a supplier for $115,000 for the 5,000 units you need. You took over for a prior project manager who only allocated $90,000 for this component. This means that you will exceed your project budget if you purchase the VIM component units from this supplier.

You reach out to your in-house manufacturing group and find that you can produce these 5,000 units in-house, within a time frame that fits the project timeline. The manufacturing group indicates that there is a one-time charge of $3,000 for setting up the production line. The material and labor cost will be $12 per unit if the firm manufactures the product in-house. You also learn that since this is a new set-up (which is using old equipment), the in-house manufacturing team estimates the following defects percentages, as well as the probability of those defects occurring:

Defect %                                                            0             25             35                40
Probability of occurrence (%)             10            60             20                10

The replacement cost for defective components made in-house is $30 per defective unit.

Calculate the following (using the Excel Template linked below):

  • Total material costs
  • Expected number of defective units at each defect percentage (%)
  • Cost of replacing defective units at each defect percentage (%)
  • Material costs plus cost of replacing defective units at each defect percentage (%)
  • The probability of cost for the defect percentage (%) levels
  • Expected value of “making” components in-house

Address the following in a written essay:

  • Using the expected value, present your recommendation to make or buy the Project VIM component parts.
  • Will you need to issue a change request for additional money on your project? If so, for how much; and, if not, why not? What reasons do you think management might use to opt for the less economical choice?

Submission:

  • For the calculation section, complete the attached Excel template or a similar one. Post your answers in the Excel file.
  • For the written essay section, submit a paper that is 2 pages long. Include a minimum of two scholarly references, in addition to any course textbooks or lecture material you decide to use. The CSU-Global Library is a good place to find these sources. Format your entire paper according to the CSU-Global Guide to Writing & APA (Links to an external site.). You will also find an APA template for writing a paper on the Library site.

    Sheet1

    A number of units
    B cost/unit
    C defective unit replacement
    D defect % 25% 35% 40%
    E probability of defect occurring 60% 20% 10%
    F set-up charge
    G total material cost A*B
    H expected # of defective units A*D
    J cost of replacing defective units C*H
    K cost of making and cost of replacing defective units F+G+J
    L sunk cost F
    M probability of cost for the defect level E*K SUM ROW M $ –
    TOTAL OF SUMS $ –
    Expected value of making in-house
    Using expected value, make your recommendation to make or buy the Project VIM component part.
    Will you need to issue a change request for additional money on your project, and if so how much, and if not why not?
    What reasons do you think management might use to opt for the lesser economical choice?

Explain how the organization in the video or article demonstrates corporate social responsibility.

DISCUSSION 1

Coaching versus Mentoring

Read the Forbes article The Difference between Coaching and Mentoring (Links to an external site.). Coaching and mentoring are both functions of HRM. Many of the characteristics are similar. However, the two techniques are best used for different situations. Describe the main differences between coaching and mentoring. Give an example of a scenario in which coaching is the better method. Give an example in which mentoring is the better method.

Reference and cite the textbook in your original post. Respond to at least two of your classmates’ posts.

DISCUSSION 2

Corporate Social Responsibility

Organizations are increasingly concerned with sustainability and corporate social responsibility – whether for business, legal, or values-based reasons. The HR function is uniquely positioned to assist in both developing and implementing a sustainability strategy.

Go to The Guardian’s Corporate Social Responsibility (Links to an external site.)page and select a video or article from the list provided. If possible, avoid selecting videos or articles already chosen and discussed by classmates. After viewing the video or reading the article you have selected, provide a summary of it and a response to the following discussion prompts:

  • Explain how the organization in the video or article demonstrates corporate social responsibility.
  • Explain HR’s role in formulating corporate values and developing an overall business sustainability strategy.
  • Identify examples of sustainable HR practices that support a culture of corporate social responsibility.

Use this week’s lecture as a basis for your post. Reference the source and cite the textbook in your original post. Respond to at least two of your classmates’ posts.

Evaluate the potential impact of the updated facility and new therapy services on potential improvements in patient satisfaction and developing new marketing share.

You currently work for the development department of Sunny Manor Nursing and Rehab Center. Sunny Manor was once a privately owned small skilled nursing home in Sunny Beach, Florida until it was sold 6 years ago to a larger group of investors known for buying older nursing homes and developing them into larger more modern skilled nursing and rehab centers. Sunny Beach itself is a small retirement community close to larger beach towns. Most of the residents are 55 years or older, and there is a growing population of 70+ retired adults. However, the city is known for being technologically advanced for a retirement community. In fact, the city has a popular social media page followed by many residents and a very popular online newsletter that can be accessed through most social media programs. Also, 5 years ago, a brand new hospital opened just outside of Sunny Beach. This brought some the top physicians and surgeons in the state to the area.

Sunny Manor recently finished a major renovation, updating the previous long-term-care wings and adding a new wing with 20 new rooms. The new wing is solely dedicated to sub-acute rehab services, and the facility also added a new updated therapy room with an expanded therapy staff and modern high-tech equipment.

After working in care coordination and admissions for the past several years, you have been promoted to the development department and tasked with marketing the new facility. The goal is to build a stronger relationship with the discharge staff and physicians at the new hospital and expand a broader reach to the community.

The first step is for you to analyze and research the changing community and develop a marketing proposal for your boss, the director of development, on how to best connect with the community of Sunny Beach and increase referrals from the new hospital.

For this task, develop a summary marketing proposal on the above scenario that includes the following elements:

  • Evaluate the potential impact of the updated facility and new therapy services on potential improvements in patient satisfaction and developing new marketing share.
  • Assess possible methods to build rapport within Sunny Beach and surrounding communities.
  • Develop a plan for communicating with the community better through social media by connecting Sunny Manor to the residents of Sunny Beach through digital marketing.
  • Provide details on how ongoing research into the community will help Sunny Manor stay ahead of the competition and well connected with community. Consider concepts in monitoring the changing demographics of the community and growing health care sector.
  • Propose a research design model including all the key elements of the research design. Apply an assessment tool and implementation plan such as the Model for Improvement (Plan-Do-Study-Act [PDSA]).
  • Conclude with recommending models and/or tools that will be used to evaluate the effectiveness of the development teams’ efforts on an ongoing basis .

The body of the resultant report should be 10 pages and include at least 7 relevant peer-reviewed academic or professional references published within the past 5years.

A case study is a collection of facts and data based on a real or hypothetical business situation.

How to Solve an Organizational Case Study – Case 1

A case study is a collection of facts and data based on a real or hypothetical business situation.  The goal of a case study is to enhance your ability to solve business problems, using a logical framework.  The issues in a case are generally not unique to a specific person, firm, or industry, and they often deal with more than one business strategy element.  Sometimes, the material presented in a case may be in conflict.  For example, two managers may disagree about a strategy or there may be several interpretations of the same facts.

In all case studies, you must analyze what is presented and state which specific actions best resolve major issues.  These actions must reflect the information in the case and the environment facing the firm.

The case should not exceed six (6) pages in length, excluding the reference list.

STEPS IN SOLVING A CASE STUDY

Your analysis should include these sequential steps:

1. Presentation of the facts surrounding the case. (~0.5 page)

2. Identification of the key issues. (~0.5 page)

3. Listing of alternative courses of action that could be taken. (~1 page)

4. Evaluation of alternative courses of action. (~1.5 pages)

5. Recommendation of the best course of action. (~1.5 pages)

Presentation of the Facts Surrounding the Case

It is helpful to read a case until you are comfortable with the information in it.  Re-readings often are an aid to comprehending facts, possible strategies, or questions that need clarification and were not apparent earlier.  In studying a case, assume you are an outside consultant hired by the firm.  While facts should be accepted as true, statements, judgments, and decisions made by the individuals in a case should be questioned, especially if not supported by facts—or when one individual disagrees with another.

During your reading of the case, you should underline crucial facts, interpret figures and charts, critically review the comments made by individuals, judge the rationality of past and current decisions, and prepare questions whose answers would be useful in addressing the key issue(s).

Identification of the Key Issue(s)

The facts stated in a case often point to the key issue(s) facing an organization, such as new opportunities, a changing environment, a decline in competitive position, or excess inventories.  Identify the characteristics and ramifications of the issue(s) and examine them, using the material in the case and the text.  Sometimes, you must delve deeply because the key issue(s) and their characteristics may not be immediately obvious.

 

Listing Alternative Courses of Action That Could Be Taken

Next, present alternative actions pertaining to the key issue(s) in the case.  Consider courses of action based on their suitability to the firm and situation.  Proposed courses of action should take into account such factors as the goals, the customer market, the overall organizational strategy, the product assortment, competition, and personnel capabilities.

Evaluation of Alternative Courses of Action

Evaluate each potential option, according to case data, the key issue(s), the strategic concepts in the text, and the firm’s environment.  Specific criteria should be used and each option analyzed on the basis of them.  The ramifications and risks associated with each alternative should be considered.  Important data not included in the case should be mentioned. Your discussion of the alternatives should include concepts from organizational diagnosis and change theory.

Recommendation of the Best Course of Action

Be sure your analysis is not just a case summary.  You will be evaluated on the basis of how well you identify key issues or problems, outline and assess alternative courses of action, and reach realistic conclusions (that take the organization’s size, competition, image, and so on into consideration).  You need to show a good understanding of both the principles of organizational diagnosis and the case.  Be precise about which alternative is more desirable for the organization in its current context.  Remember, your goal is t

HRMD 650: Organizational Development

How to Solve an Organizational Case Study – Case 1

A case study is a collection of facts and data based on a real or hypothetical business situation. The goal of a case study is to enhance your ability to solve business problems, using a logical framework. The issues in a case are generally not unique to a specific person, firm, or industry, and they often deal with more than one business strategy element. Sometimes, the material presented in a case may be in conflict. For example, two managers may disagree about a strategy or there may be several interpretations of the same facts.

In all case studies, you must analyze what is presented and state which specific actions best resolve major issues. These actions must reflect the information in the case and the environment facing the firm.

The case should not exceed six (6) pages in length, excluding the reference list.

STEPS IN SOLVING A CASE STUDY

Your analysis should include these sequential steps:

1. Presentation of the facts surrounding the case. (~0.5 page)

2. Identification of the key issues. (~0.5 page)

3. Listing of alternative courses of action that could be taken. (~1 page)

4. Evaluation of alternative courses of action. (~1.5 pages)

5. Recommendation of the best course of action. (~1.5 pages)

Presentation of the Facts Surrounding the Case

It is helpful to read a case until you are comfortable with the information in it. Re-readings often are an aid to comprehending facts, possible strategies, or questions that need clarification and were not apparent earlier. In studying a case, assume you are an outside consultant hired by the firm. While facts should be accepted as true, statements, judgments, and decisions made by the individuals in a case should be questioned, especially if not supported by facts—or when one individual disagrees with another.

During your reading of the case, you should underline crucial facts, interpret figures and charts, critically review the comments made by individuals, judge the rationality of past and current decisions, and prepare questions whose answers would be useful in addressing the key issue(s).

Identification of the Key Issue(s)

The facts stated in a case often point to the key issue(s) facing an organization, such as new opportunities, a changing environment, a decline in competitive position, or excess inventories. Identify the characteristics and ramifications of the issue(s) and examine them, using the material in the case and the text. Sometimes, you must delve deeply because the key issue(s) and their characteristics may not be immediately obvious.

Listing Alternative Courses of Action That Could Be Taken

Next, present alternative actions pertaining to the key issue(s) in the case. Consider courses of action based on their suitability to the firm and situation. Proposed courses of action should take into account such factors as the goals, the customer market, the overall organizational strategy, the product assortment, competition, and personnel capabilities.

Evaluation of Alternative Courses of Action

Evaluate each potential option, according to case data, the key issue(s), the strategic concepts in the text, and the firm’s environment. Specific criteria should be used and each option analyzed on the basis of them. The ramifications and risks associated with each alternative should be considered. Important data not included in the case should be mentioned. Your discussion of the alternatives should include concepts from organizational diagnosis and change theory.

Recommendation of the Best Course of Action

Be sure your analysis is not just a case summary. You will be evaluated on the basis of how well you identify key issues or problems, outline and assess alternative courses of action, and reach realistic conclusions (that take the organization’s size, competition, image, and so on into consideration). You need to show a good understanding of both the principles of organizational diagnosis and the case. Be precise about which alternative is more desirable for the organization in its current context. Remember, your goal is to apply a logical reasoning process to this organization. A written report must demonstrate this process.

o apply a logical reasoning process to this organization. A written report must demonstrate this process.

It gives you an opportunity to critique a training proposal and to recommend a better training design

This assignment is worth 20% of your final grade and addresses Course Objectives 1 and 4. It gives you an opportunity to critique a training proposal and to recommend a better training design. You must complete this assignment individually, without contacting other students, and you may not use a paper or any part of a paper from a previous class or from another person. If you have questions about this assignment, please post them in the Ask the Professor discussion forum so that everyone can benefit from the answers.

THE SCENARIO

This scenario is adapted from:

Noe, R. A. (2013). Employee training and development (6th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Irwin.

You are the human resource generalist for College Inn, a chain of modestly-priced hotels located in the Southeastern United States. Each hotel has 100 to 150 rooms, a pool, and a full-service restaurant. The hotels are located near the exit ramps of major highways in three Southeastern college towns: Raleigh, NC; Columbia, SC; and Athens, GA. You just received the attached memo from the vice president of operations asking for your opinion about some training he is contracting for with outside consultants. There is no training manager for College Inn, so the vice president often contacts you for help with training in the Operations division.

YOUR TASK

Prepare a 2-3 page memo to the vice president of operations that critiques the proposed training.

· Identify all problems related to the proposed training and discuss why these items are problems. Hint: You might want to review the competencies and areas of expertise TD professionals are expected to demonstrate. The Association for Talent Development (ATD) Competency Model (https://www.td.org/Certification/Competency-Model) is a good resource.

· Give your recommendations for improving the training design and explain how your revised design will address the VP’s expectations regarding the training.

· Describe at least two ways managers can support the training. Hint: You might want to review the Transfer of Learning Matrix that is listed in the Week 4 Required Reading – Transfer of Learning area.

The vice president values your opinion but also likes to know what other experts have to say, so support your statements and opinions with citations from appropriate sources. The vice president is not familiar with training and development terminology, so provide definitions for key concepts and theories that you believe apply to this situation. Don’t forget to cite the source(s) of your definitions.

Your memo should be two to three single-spaced pages, excluding the cover and reference pages. Please use one-inch margins and a font size of at least 11 points. Include a minimum of five references in your memo. Cite reputable sources such as the readings and resources posted in our classroom, and articles published in academic or practitioner journals within the last ten years. The websites of consulting firms and blogs are not appropriate sources for this assignment. Put your references on a separate page and use APA format for all citations, quotations, and references.

You might be tempted to propose conducting a detailed needs assessment but remember that the VP has already conducted a needs assessment and is eager to get started with the training. The VP mentions an article by Ross Tartell; the article can be found in eReserves:

Tartell, R. (2014). Use focus groups for rapid needs analysis. Training, 51(2), 14.

You might also want to read a bit about service recovery. Here are two articles that are available in eReserves:

Kim, T., Yoo, J. J-E., & Lee, G. (2012). Post-recovery customer relationships and customer partnerships in a restaurant setting. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 24(3), 381-401.
doi: 10.1108/09596111211217879

Komunda, M., & Osarenkhoe, A. (2012). Remedy or cure for service failure? Effects of service recovery on customer satisfaction and loyalty. Business Process Management Journal, 18(1), 82-103. doi: 10.1108/14637151211215028

SUBMITTING YOUR ASSIGNMENT

Please add the following statement to the cover of your paper:

This paper is my own work that I created specifically for this course and this section. All research or material I used in preparing this paper has been properly acknowledged within the assignment in accordance with academic standards for complete and accurate citation of sources.

Submit your assignment electronically via the Assignment folder.

Name your file this way: YourLastNameFirstInitial_TrainingCritique

(Example: DoeJ_TrainingCritique)

Due Date: Sunday, March 15, 11:59 p.m. Eastern time.

Please see the next page for the grading criteria for this assignment.

The memo from the vice president of operations follows the grading criteria.

 

Criteria for Grading Critique of Training Design Assignment

 

A

B

C

F

Points Earned

 

Quality of Content 

(55 pts)

Student demonstrated exceptional knowledge of       relevant concepts and theories; all statements and opinions were supported       by appropriate citations from the literature.

55 – 50 points

Student demonstrated satisfactory knowledge of       relevant concepts and theories; most statements and opinions were       supported by appropriate citations from the literature.

49 – 44 points

Student demonstrated less than satisfactory       knowledge of relevant concepts and theories; some statements and opinions       were not supported by appropriate citations from the literature.

43 – 39 points

Student demonstrated unsatisfactory knowledge of       relevant concepts and theories; many statements and opinions were not       supported by appropriate citations from the literature.

38 – 0 points

 

Comments

 

Quality of Research

(20 pts)

Student did an exceptional job of integrating       course readings with additional research. Student cited more than the required number of references. Sources listed were all scholarly or       practitioner journals or academic books from the last ten years.

20 – 18 points

Student did a satisfactory job of integrating       course readings with additional research. Student cited the required number of references. Sources listed were primarily scholarly       or practitioner journals or academic books from the last ten years.

17 – 16 points

Student did a less than satisfactory job of integrating       course readings with additional research. Student may not have cited the required number of references. Some sources listed may not have been       scholarly or practitioner journals or academic books from the last ten       years.

15 – 14 points

Student did an inadequate job of integrating       course readings with additional research. Student did not cite the required number of references. Many of the sources listed were not       scholarly or practitioner journals or academic books from the last ten       years.

13 – 0 points

 

Comments

 

Organization and Mechanics 

(20 pts)

Student presented information in a logical       sequence that was very easy to follow. Memo had no major spelling and/or grammar errors. The page length requirement was met.

20 – 18 points

Student presented information in a mostly       logical sequence that was fairly easy follow. Memo had a few minor spelling and/or       grammar errors. The page length       requirement was met or may have been slightly exceeded.

17 – 16 points

Student presented information in a confusing       sequence that was not easy to follow. Memo had several major spelling and/or grammar errors. The page length requirement may not       have been met.

15 – 14 points

Student presented information in an illogical       sequence that was difficult to follow. Memo had many spelling and/or grammar errors. The page length requirement was not       met.

13 – 0 points

 

Comments

 

APA formatting

(5 pts)

All citations,       quotations, and references were formatted correctly or contained only one       or two minor errors.

5.0 – 4.5

Most citations,       quotations, and references were formatted correctly or contained a       few minor errors.

4.4 – 4.0 points

Several citations,       quotations, and references were not formatted correctly or       contained major errors.

3.9 – 3.5 points

Many citations,       quotations, and references were not formatted correctly or       contained many errors.

3.4 – 0 points

 

Comments

 

Total       Points Earned

(100       points max)

Overall Comments

 

MEMORANDUM

To: Human Resource Manager, College Inn

From: Vice President of Operations, College Inn

Subject: Service Recovery Training

 

As you know, I am constantly trying to improve customer service in our hotels. I believe that one of the most important aspects of high quality customer service is service recovery, or how our employees both seek out and respond to customer complaints. There are two outcomes to a customer complaint:

• the customer complains and is satisfied by the response, or

• the customer complains and is not satisfied with the response.

However, sometimes the customer is dissatisfied, but never makes a complaint. In my experience, dissatisfied customers don’t complain because (1) they want to avoid confrontation, (2) they don’t have a convenient way to make a complaint, or (3) they don’t believe that complaining will do any good.

I have decided that we need to train our hotel staff in service recovery. My decision is based on the results of a recent needs assessment my staff conducted by holding focus groups with members of our frequent guest program. I followed the steps in the article by Ross Tartell that you sent me last year; it helped me and my staff get useful information. One theme that emerged from these focus groups was that our employees have difficulty in the area of service recovery. For example, one guest said that last month, in one of our restaurants, he had to wait more than 30 minutes to get a simple cheeseburger, which was cold by the time it was delivered to his table and had cheddar cheese instead of the Swiss cheese the guest requested. When the guest complained, the waiter rolled his eyes and said that the chef always messed up the cheeseburger orders. Another guest called the front desk at 6:00 p.m. to request extra towels and was told that all of the housekeepers were gone for the day. These service failures affect guests’ perceptions of our hotels and discourage repeat visits.

I heard two business process consultants speak at the International Hotel, Motel, and Restaurant Show last year and I thought they were very dynamic. I contacted them about doing some service recovery training and found out that they have consulted on operational issues for one or two of our competitors. They have agreed to give a presentation about service recovery.

Here’s what the consultants proposed for the service recovery training. They will deliver a presentation accompanied by a question and answer period. The total time for the training session will be approximately three hours: the presentation will last one and a half hours, the question-and-answer period will last approximately 45 minutes, and there will be one 30 minute break. We will run one session for each shift (day, afternoon, and night shifts). I would like to pilot this training in the College Inn-Athens before rolling it out to the other two locations.

My expectation is that after this training, the staff will be able to successfully recover from service failures. Because you are knowledgeable about training, I want your honest feedback on the proposed training session. Specifically, I want to know whether or not our employees will be able to recover from service problems in their interactions with customers after they complete this training. If not, what recommendations do you have for improving the training? I also think the managers need to support the training but I didn’t address that issue with the consultants. Can you give me some ideas on the best way to engage the managers?

I look forward to hearing your thoughts. If you need any additional information, please don’t hesitate to contact me.

Read the attached case, “Bank of America’s Acquisition of Merrill Lynch”.

Case Analysis: Bank of 

Read the attached case, “Bank of America’s Acquisition of Merrill Lynch”. Use the case analysis format provided below to address to identify the problems and provide several suggested solutions that the Bank of America executive team can review for possible implementation. Be sure to identify “identify 2 to 3 problems” and “develop 2 to 3 possible solutions to the problems identified”, and use this as the focus for making your case in the case format. Note: The case questions provided at the end of each case can be used as an insight to what the problems might be; so be sure to investigate the case carefully.

Case Format

I. Write the Executive Summary

  • One to two paragraphs in length
  • On cover page of the report
  • Briefly identify the major problems facing the manager/key person
  • Summarize the recommended plan of action and include a brief justification of the recommended plan

II. Statement of the Problem

  • State the problems facing the manager/key person
  • Identify and link the symptoms and root causes of the problems
  • Differentiate short term from long term problems
  • Conclude with the decision facing the manager/key person

III. Causes of the Problem 

  • Provide a detailed analysis of the problems; identify in the Statement of the Problem
  • In the analysis, apply theories and models from the text and/or readings
  • Support conclusions and /or assumptions with specific references to the case and/or the readings

IV. Decision Criteria and Alternative Solutions

  • Identify criteria against which you evaluate alternative solutions (i.e. time for implementation, tangible costs, acceptability to management)
  • Include two or three possible alternative solutions
  • Evaluate the pros and cons of each alternative against the criteria listed
  • Suggest additional pros/cons if appropriate

V. Recommended Solution, Implementation and Justification

  • Identify who, what, when, and how in your recommended plan of action
  • Solution and implementation should address the problems and causes identified in the previous section
  • The recommended plan should include a contingency plan(s) to back up the ‘ideal’ course of action
  • Using models and theories, identify why you chose the recommended plan of action – why it’s the best and why it would work

VI. External Sourcing

  • 2 to 3 external sources (in addition to your textbook) should be referenced to back up your recommendations or to identify issues.  This information would be ideally sourced in current journals, magazines and newspapers and should reflect current management thought or practice with respect to the issues Identify.

The requirements below must be met for your paper to be accepted and graded:

  • Write between 750 – 1,250 words (approximately 3 – 5 pages) using Microsoft Word in APA style, see example below.
  • Use font size 12 and 1” margins.
  • Include cover page and reference page.
  • At least 80% of your paper must be original content/writing.
  • No more than 20% of your content/information may come from references.
  • Use at least three references from outside the course material, one reference must be from EBSCOhost. Text book, lectures, and other materials in the course may be used, but are not counted toward the three reference requirement.
  • Cite all reference material (data, dates, graphs, quotes, paraphrased words, values, etc.) in the paper and list on a reference page in APA style.

References must come from sources such as, scholarly journals found in EBSCOhost, CNN, online newspapers such as, The Wall Street Journal, government websites, etc. Sources such as, Wikis, Yahoo Answers, eHow, blogs, etc. are not acceptable for academic writing.